As defined in section 4(1) investigation include all the proceeding under crpc for the collection of evidence conducted by Police officer or by any person other than a Magistrate, who is authorized by Magistrate in this behalf. It would be seen from above that investigation consists of steps taken by a Police officer other than a Magistrate to ascertain whether any offence has been committed at all and if so, by whom and what is the evidence on which the Prosecution can be based. Investigation can also be made by a person specially authorized by a Magistrate to do so.

Purpose of Investigation

The principle purpose of criminal investigation is to provide answers to certain questions relating to crime. These include the identity of the victim, the exact place at which the offence occurred how the crime was committed and means employed in its commission, the time of attack, the motive or object of attack, and the identity of the offender. Criminal investigation is employed also in the search for an interrogation of material witnesses who are able and willing to give competent and relevant testimony against the suspect or offender and in the reconstruction of all facts connected with the crime in order that, at the trial of a defendant, a true picture of what occurred may be presented so as to leave no doubt in minds of judge regarding the guilt or innocent of the accused. The main object of investigation is to collect evidence.

Difference between Investigation and Inquiry

An inquiry and investigation not synonymous but all different. Investigation usually starts on the information relating to the commission of the offence given to the officer incharge of the Police station and duly recorded under section 154 crpc. Taking out warrant of arrest, arresting the accused, seizure, search etc. Form some parts of an investigation. Whereas an inquiry is a proceeding conducted by a Magistrate or a court in order to determine the truth or falsity of a certain facts before an accused is charged with an offence.

Object of Inquiry

 The object an inquiry is to determine the truth or falsity of certain facts in order to further action thereon while the object of an investigation to collect evidence. While an inquiry may start with shadowy begging, investigation starts when a Police officer forms a definite opinion that there are grounds for investigating a crime. Inquiry stops when the trial begins.

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